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Imisa Waddan Ayaa Heysta Hubka Nuclear-ka, Imisa Xabo Ayaase Taalla Adduunka?
January 15, 2020 - Written by editor marsan

Xilligan oo ay taagan tahay xiisadda u dhaxeysa Mareykanka iyo Iiraan, sheekadan waxaad wax badan uga fahmi kartaa arrimaha hubka nuclear-ka.

Hubkan waxaa loo aqoonsaday inuu yahay midka wax gumaada ee khasaaraha ugu weyn u geysan kara dunida.

Qaraxyadiisu aad ayey u awood badan yihiin, hal bambo oo nuclear ahna waxay baabi’in kartaa magaalo dhan.

Qumbuladaha nuclear-ka waxay aad uga waxyeello badan yihiin xitaa bambada ugu weyn adduunka ee aan nuclear-ka ahayn

Waxaa jira waddamo badan oo ay ka mid tahay Iiraan, kuwaas oo aan loo oggoleyn inay yeeshaan awoodda nuclear-ka, halka kuwo kalena ay heystaan.

Waxaa laga yaabaa in aad su’aalo dhowr ah iska weydiiso arrimaha nuclear-ka – laakiin ha walwalin, waxaan isku soo toosinay jawaabaha aad uga baahan tahay inta badan su’aalahaas.

Muxuu yahay hubka nuclear-ka?

Waa qaraxyo si xad-dhaaf ah u awood badan.

Waxaa laga yaabaa inaad xasuusatid erayada “atoms” iyo “isotopes”, haddii aad soo dhigatay maadada seyniska – kuwaas ayaa qeyb ka ah hannaanka loo maro sameynta bambooyinka nuclear-ka.

Bambooyinku waxay tamartooda ka helaan atoms-yada oo kala fide ama isu imaade oo si wadajir ah cuf u sameeya. Taasi waa sababta mararka qaar bambaanooyinka nuclear-ka loogu yeero “atomic bomb”.

Hiroshima ka dib markii lagu dhuftay atomic bomb
Image captionMareykanka ayaa tomic bomb ku riday magaalada Hiroshima ee dalka Japan, 6-dii bishii August ee sanadkii 1945-kii

Hubka nuclear-ka wuxuu sii daayaa xaddi aad u farabadan oo shucaac ah – kaas oo ah mid sababi kara waxyeello badan, sidaa darteedna saameyntoodu waxay sii jiri kartaa xitaa marka uu qaraxa dhaco ka dib.

Hase ahaatee labo jeer oo kaliya ayaa la adeegsaday taariikhda dunida – waxaana lagu dhuftay waddanka Japan, sanadkii 1945-kii, xilligaas oo uu socday dagaalkii labaad ee adduunka. Markaas waxay bambooyinkan sababeen musiibo weyn iyo khasaare nafeed oo laga xishoodo in tiradiisa la sheego.

Shucaacii ka dhashay bambadii lagu dhuftay magaalada Hiroshima wuxuu socday dhowr bilood, wuxuuna dilay dad lagu qiyaasay 80,000 oo ruux.

Bambadii kale ee lagu dhuftay magaalada Nagasaki waxay iyaduna dishay in ka badan 70,000 oo qof.

Tan iyo xilligaas wixii ka dambeeyay nuclear-ka wali looma adeegsanin dagaal kale.

Sagaal waddan ayaa hadda heysta hubka nuclear-ka, oo kala ah: Mareykanka, Ingiriiska, Ruushka, Faransiiska, Shiinaha, Hindiya, Pakistan, Israa’iil iyo Kuuriyada Waqooyi.

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Yaa sameyn kara hubkan?

Marka sida guud loo eego, jawaabtu waa inuu sameyn karo qof kasta oo aqoon seynis u leh, farsamadana yaqaan, qalabkana heli kara.

Laakiin marka laga hadlayo in waddamada loo oggol yahay sameysashada hubkan iyo in kale, jawaabta su’aashaas waxay noqonaysaa sheeko dheer.

Waxaa jira wax loogu yeero is-afgaradka xakameynta hubka Nuclear-ka, oo afka qalaad loogu soo gaabiyo (NPT) – kaas oo ah heshiis looga gol-leeyahay in looga hortago faafitaanka hubka nuclear-ka iyo in laga qaado waddamada aan loo oggoleyn.

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Image captionDaruuro qiiq iyo holac ah oo ka dhashay bambo nuclear ah oo la qarxiyay

Tan iyo 1970-kii, 191 waddan, oo ay ku jiraan Mareykanka, Ruushka, Ingiriiska, Faransiiska iyo Shiinaha ayaa saxiixay heshiiska ka hortagga Nuclear-ka.

Shantan waddan waxaa loogu yeeraa dowladaha ku hubeysan nuclear-ka – waana loo oggol yahay inay heystaan hubkaas, sababtoo ah waxay sameysteen oo ay tijaabiyeen ka hor inta aan heshiiska NPT la dhaqan galinin 1-dii bishii January ee sanadkii 1967-kii.

Xitaa iyadoo dalalkan ay heystaan nuclear-ka, heshiiskana ay qeyb ka yihiin, iyaga qudhooda waxaa laga rabaa inay yareeyaan xaddigiisa mana loo oggola inay waligood iska heystaan.

Israa’iil (oo waligeed aan qiranin, ama beeninin inay heysato nuclear), Hindiya iyo Pakistan midna qeyb kama aha heshiiskaas, mana aysan saxiixin.

Kuuriyada Waqooyi waxay heshiiskaas ka baxday sanadkii 2003-dii.

Marka xaggey Iiraan ku jirtaa?

Iiraan waxay barnaamijkeeda nuclear-ka billowday sanadihii 1950-meeyadii, mar kastana waxay ku adkeysaneysay in tamarta nuclear-ka ee ay sameysaneyso ay tahay mid nabad ah.

Laakiin waxaa jiray shaki laga qabay inay si qarsoodi ah u sameysaneyso hubka nuclear-ka, arrintaasina waxay keentay in Golaha ammaanka ee Qaramada Midoobay, Mareykanka iyo Midowga Yurub ay cunaqabateyno ku soo rogaan sanadkii 2010-kii.

Tani waxay keentay in sanadkii 2015-kii ay heshiis galaan Iiraan iyo waddamada kale ee quwadaha waaweyn, kaas oo ay Iiraan ku saxiixday heshiis dhigaya inay baabi’iso bacriminta nuclear-ka si cunaqabateynta looga qaado, laakiin Madaxweynaha Mareyaknka Donald Trump ayaa heshiiskaas cagta ku dhuftay bishii May ee sanadkii 2018-kii.

Madaxweyne Hassan Rouhani
Image captionMadaxweynaha Iiraan Hassan Rouhani ayaa horay u sheegay in Iiraan aysan damacsaneyn sameysashada hubka nuclear-ka

Haddana waxay dalalka reer Yurub Iiraan loollan ku galinayaan inaysan u hoggaansamin qodobbadii heshiiska.

Sidoo kale, markii ay sanadkan cirka isku shareereen xiisadaha u dhaxeeya Mareykanka iyo Iiraan, Madaxweyne Trump ayaa wacad ku maray in Iiraan aan loo oggolaan doonin inay yeelato hubka nuclear-ka inta uu isagu madaxweyne yahay.

Ka dib markii ay caro ka dhalatay dilkii uu Mareykanka magaalada Baqdaad ugu geystay janaraalkii reer Iiraan ee Qasem Soleimani, Iiraan waxay sheegtay inaysan usii hoggaansami doonin xaddidaaddii qeybta ka ahayd heshiiska.

Waligeen ma arki doonnaa duni xor ka ah hubka nuclear-ka?

Sida kor ku xusan, waxaa mustaqbalka la damacsan yahay in hubka nuclear-ka laga baabi’iyo guud ahaan dunida.

Run ahaantii, tirada bambooyinka nuclearka ee dunida taallay waxay ayaa aad hoos u dhacday marka la eego sanadkii 1986-kii oo ay ahayd tirada bambooyinkaasi 70,000, halka maantana ay yihiin 14,000 oo bambo.

Mareyknaka, Ingiriiska iyo Ruushka waxay dhammaantood hoos usii dhigayeen xaddiga ay hubkaas ka heystaan, laakiin waxaa la aaminsan yahay in Shiinaha, Pakistan, Hindiya iyo Kuuriyada Waqooyi ay sameysanayeen bambooyin dheeraad ah, sida uu sheegay ururka seynis-yahannada Mareykanku.

Kim Jong-un
Image captionHoggaamiyaha Kuuriyada Waqooyi, Kim Jong-un, In Kuuriyada Waqooyi ay heysato gantaallo gaari kara Mareykanka

Bishii July ee sanadkii 2017-kii, waxay u muuqatay in dunidu ay hal tallaabo u qaadday sidii looga xoroobi lahaa hubka nuclear-ka, ka dib markii ay in ka badan 100 waddan saxiixeen qaraar ka soo baxay Qaramada Midoobay oo dhigayay in si wada jir ah loo baabi’iyo hubkaas, loona mamnuuco.

Laakiin dalalka ku hubeysan nuclear-ka ee kala ah Mareykanka, Ingiriiska, Faransiiska iyo Ruushka ayaa hor joogsaday hirgalinta qaraarkaas.

Ingiriiska iyo Mareykanka waxay sheegeen in qaraarkaas uuna damaanad qaadi karin amniga dunida, maadaama nuclear-ka uu udub dhexaad u ahaa ilaalinta nabadgalyada caalamka, muddo ka badan 70 sano.

Halka dalalka Mareykanka iyo Ingiriiska ay yareynayaan bambooyinka ku jira bakhaarradooda hubka nuclear-ka, haddana khubaro ayaa sheegaya inay sii xoojinayaan awoodda bambooyinkaas ay leeyihiin.

Ingiriiska ayaa sii casriyeynaya nidaamkiisa hubka nuclear-ka, Mareykankana waxaa laga yaabaa inuu lacag dhan $1 trillion (£703bn) u adeegsado sidii uu u kordhin lahaa awoodda nuclear-kiisa, ilaa sanadka 2040-ka.

Kuuriyada Waqooyina waxay sii waddaa tijaabinta iyo hormarinta barnaamijkeeda nuclear-ka, iyadoo gantaallo ridday xilli aad u dhow oo ah bishii October, 2019.

Sidaas awgeed, iyada oo dunida ay ku sii yaraanayaan tirada bambooyinka nuclear-ka, marka loo eego 30 sano ka hor, hadana uma muuqato in wakhti dhow laga xoroobi doono hubkaas ama si buuxda loo baabi’in doono.

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